SUN Countries are working towards demonstrating better use of finance data through improved advocacy, planning and impact which will lead to increased resources from both domestic and external sources. They do this by regularly and transparently tracking nutrition budget allocations against multi-sectoral nutrition plans.
Tracking nutrition investments
How much do governments invest in nutrition?
Each SUN Country has a different context, and therefore, there is no gold-standard for investigating national budgets that can be used by all. Nevertheless, SUN Countries are undertaking the SUN Movement Budget Analysis Exercise and the experience is proving to be a valuable cross-country learning experience. In a study undertaken by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded MQSUN project, based on the SUN Movement Budget Analysis Exercise, the variation of nutrition related investments can be seen in the graph to the right. Across the 24 countries, 33 per cent is spent on agriculture, education, social protection and health. The nutrition communities are crunching the numbers to make these budgets work harder for nutrition by incorporating nutrition targets and through tracking impact.
By 2017, 47 countries conducted an analysis of their government budgets, with 22 countries having done it for the second time. These efforts show that it is feasible to conduct a budget analysis but also that this process needs to be sustained and improved. This guidance note builds on previous versions (2015 and 2016) and benefited from inputs and review from many partners. The document is developed to support SUN Government Focal Points and their in-country partners, as they constitute the so-called national Multi-Stakeholder Platforms for Nutrition. The content and format of the guidance note is meant to be continuously updated as new evidence and lessons become available.
• Download the 2017 Guidance note: English
The need to better track nutrition investments has been highlighted since the beginning of the Movement. A 2013 literature review examined what could be done to track spending and in 2014, online budget reviews were undertaken of 28 countries in the SUN Movement. The 3-Step Approach to Budget Analysis was identified by SUN Countries and technical partners as a quick and practical way to report on nutrition relevant allocations in national budgets. The objective of the 2014 pilot exercise in Costa Rica was to reach an estimate of the total budget allocated to nutrition relevant activities across key sectors based on a common understand with key Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs). These findings were presented at the 2014 SUN Movement Global Gathering.
By June 2015, in response to a call of interest during the 17th series of SUN Country Network Meetings, 30 SUN Countries had gone through Step One and Step Two and 14 of those had made considerable progress with Step 3. The preliminary analysis, was featured in the 2015 Global Nutrition Report and used to inform the first ever framework for investing in nutrition, in addition to being presented at the 2015 SUN Movement Global Gathering.
As of 2016, the budget analysis work has continued with 19 additional SUN Countries joining the exercise for the first time in addition to 22 countries undertaking the exercise for the second time.
Last updated: December 2016
David Nabarro, former SUN Movement Coordinator, commends the budget analysis work of SUN Countries during the 2015 SUN Movement Global Gathering.
Nutrition financing: Why does it matter? by SPRING – USAID’s technical program
The 3-Step Approach to Budget Analysis & regional workshops
The 3-Step Approach is recognised in the SUN Movement as a quick and practical way to report on nutrition relevant allocations in national budgets. The overall approach is largely based on the SUN Donor Network Methodology. The 3-Step Approach is a useful exercise in transparency as it allows countries to view changes in budgetary allocations (and actual expenditures when possible) in national budgets over time. While the results do not directly allow for comparisons across countries due to the variations between countries, the 3-Step approach is designed to help countries to identify gaps between what is needed, and what is spent.
Identifying relevant budget-line items through a strategically created key word search. Where possible, the initial search relates to relevant outcomes and actions as presented in national plans for nutrition.
Clearly assessing whether the identified budget-line items are specific to nutrition, which allocations are related to nutrition (nutrition-sensitive), and those which are unrelated to nutrition. The budget-line items that are found to be not relevant for nutrition are excluded from the analysis after further consultations.
Weighting or applying an attributed percentage of the allocated budget-line item to nutrition where the percentage is based on the step-two categorization as well as consultation with national experts.
Presentation about the 3-Step Approach
Nairobi, Kenya, from 22 to 24 August 2016
Bangkok, Thailand, from 25 to 27 April 2016
Guatemala City, Guatemala from 28 to 30 April 2015
Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire from 27 to 29 April 2015
Entebbe, Uganda from 21 to 22 April 2015
Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand from 15 to 16 April 2015
Reports, presentations, tools & guidance
- 2016 Nairobi Regional Workshop Report English
- 2016 Bangkok Regional Workshop Report English
- 2016 MQSUN Report: Analysis of Nutrition-Sensitive Budget Allocations English
- 2015 Short Synthesis Report: SUN Movement Budget Analysis Exercise English | Français
Technical consultation series & presentations
Tools and guidance
- Budget Analysis Excel Worksheet Template (2017) English
- Guidance for Budget Analysis (2017) English
- SUN Guidance: 3-Step Approach (2016) English
- SUN Guidance: Step 2 and 3 (2015) English
- SUN Guidance: 3-Step Approach (2015) English
- SUN Budget Analysis Reporting Template (2015) English
- SPRING Guidance: Nutrition Budget Analysis Tool English
- SPRING Excel: English
Learnings and challenges
Learnings from the 3-Step Approach
Step one: Learnings from SUN Countries: Analyses focused on the national government budgets that were publicly available and did not include sub-national governments, with the exception of Pakistan. Most analayses also focused only on the allocations that are documented in national budgets (on-budget), leaving the off-budget allocations out of the analysis.
Step two: Learnings from SUN Countries: For “nutrition-specific” interventions, emphasis was placed on the importance of the continuum of care targeting the First 1,000 Days and women in reproductive age, including adolescent girls. When it was not obvious from the programme name or description, two criteria were identified as useful for taking decisions on the categorization:
- Defining the expected outcomes, including the contribution of sectors towards positive behavioral changes in feeding practices and consumption patterns (e.g. access to a balanced diet throughout the year); and,
- Identifying the targeted population (direct and indirect beneficiaries of a given action).
Step three: Learnings from SUN Countries: There was considerable discussion on what “weights” should be applied for nutrition-sensitive allocations based on:
- Their expected outcome (theoretical weight reflecting the literature) or;
- Based on an estimate of the nutrition component (predictable weight reflecting the amount of nutrition activities in an integrated programme)
Three challenges emerging from the exercise:
- Accounting for personnel costs
- Inconsistent categorisation of nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific budget line items
- Analysing allocations at sub-national level
SUN Country investment snapshots
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Bangladesh
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Benin
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Botswana
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Burkina Faso
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Burundi
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Cameroon
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Chad
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Comoros
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Congo Brazzaville
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Costa Rica
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 El Salvador
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Gambia
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Ghana
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Guatemala
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Guinea-Bissau
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Indonesia
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Kenya
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Kyrgyzstan
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Lao
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Lesotho
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Liberia
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Madagascar
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Maharashtra
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Mauritania
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Mozambique
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Nepal
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Pakistan
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Peru
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Philippines
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 South Sudan
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Tajikistan
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Uganda
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Vietnam
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Yemen
- Nutrition Investment Snapshot 2016 Zambia
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